Friday, January 21, 2022

MUHAMMAD ALITABIRI KUWA, ATAKAPO KUFA, MASWAHABA WAKE WATAUKANA UISLAM NA KURUDIA UKRISTO

 





MANENO YA MTUME (SAWW) YA KUWAAMBIA MASWAHABA.

Bukhari katika Juzuu ya 8 Mlango wa Kauli ya Mtume (saww) katika kitabu chake ameandika: Mtume (saww) Aliwaambia maswahaba wake: Mutafuata Mwenendo wa Watu Waliopita Kabla Yenu!

Imepokelewa kutoka kwa Ataa ibn Yassar kutoka kwa Abu Said Al Khudri naye kutoka kwa Mtume Muhammad (saww) Aliposema: Mutafuata Mwenendo wa Waliopita Kabla yenu hatua baada ya hatua na dhiraa baada ya dhiraa hata wakiingia kwenye shimo la Kenge na Nanyi mutawafuata!

Maswahaba wakauliza, Ewe Mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu, Hao waliopita ni nani hao, Mayahudi na Wakristo?

Mtume (saww) Akawajibu, Ni akina nani basi kama sio hao?
Rejea: Sahih Bukhari juz 8, uk 151.

Kauli hiyo ya Mtume (saww) Inaambatana na Aya ya Qur'aan 3:144 Isemayo Je Mtume Akiuliwa au Akifa basi mutarudi kinyume nyume kwa visigino vyenu?

Kauli ya Mwenyezi Mungu na ya Mtukufu Mtume zilianza kuthibitika mara tu Mtume (saww) Alipofariki, Haikuchukua hata dakika moja tu na chizi mmoja akatoka nje ya nyumba ya Mtume na kuutoa Upanga wake na kuwaambia Watu Waliokuwa wamekusanyika kumjulia hali Mtume (saww) ambaye Alikuwa Anaumwa na Yupo kwenye Kitanda cha Mauti: Nisisikie hata mtu mmoja akisema kuwa Muhammad Amekufa! Huyo Chizi alikuwa ni Umar Khattab!

Kwanini alizuia watu wasiseme kuwa Mtume (saww) Amefariki?
Kwa sababu nia ilishamuingia Arudi Kinyume nyume kwa Kisigino!
Kisha Umar akatuma mtu akamuite shoga wake Abubakar ambaye alikuwa kwa mkewe nje ya Madina.

Alipofika Abubakar akaingia ndani ya Nyumba ya Mtume (saww) Kisha akatoka nje na kuwaambia: Na Hakuwa Muhammad ni Mtume aliyepitiwa na Mitume kabla yake, sasa huyo Muhammad Ameshafariki.

Baada ya kueleza hayo Abubakar na swahibu wake Umar wakaenda mbio mbio kule Saqifa kugombea ukhalifa bila ya kuishughulikia Maiti ya Mtume (saww)!

Hiyo ilikuwa ni kurudi kinyumenyume kwa visigino kwa hao mabwana wawili.

Huko Saqifa baada ya mvutano baina ya Ansaar na Muhajirin, Abubakar akachaguliwa Ukhalifa baada ya watu kutishiwa maisha yao na wengine baada ya kuhongwa mapesa!

Hiyo ilikuwa ni kurudi kinyumenyume kwa visigino kwa hao mabwana wawili.

Baada ya hapo mambo machafu waliyoyafanya hao wawili wakishirikiana na watu wao waliowanunua ikawa ni sawa na yale Aliyoyasema Mtume (saww) kuwa: Mutafuata Mwenendo wa Waliopita Kabla yenu hatua baada ya hatua na dhiraa baada ya dhiraa hata wakiingia kwenye shimo la Kenge na Nanyi mutawafuata!

Leo tunashuhudia Watu wengi wanaojifanya kuwa ni Waislamu Safi Kabisa Wakiwafuata hao Abubakar na Umar ambao wameingia kwenye shimo la kenge na wao pia wanaingia!
Kila kukicha utasikia hii Bid'aa eti Mtume Hakufanya hivi na hakufanya vile.

Wengine wanasema eti kuwafuata hao mabwana na kuwatakia Radhi ni Faradhi na ni sawa kama ilivyo Sala, Funga!

Wengine wanafikia hata kuzusha machafu juu ya Mtume (saww), kwasababu eti Umar alisema Mtume Anaweweseka! 

MAASI YA BAADHI YA MASWAHABA WA MTUME MUHAMMAD (saww) NA KURUDI KWENYE UKAFIRI!

 



MAASI YA BAADHI YA MASWAHABA WA MTUME MUHAMMAD (saww) NA KURUDI KWENYE UKAFIRI!

Waislamu wengi wa Madhehebu nyingi ambazo siyo wa Shia Ithna'ashry Wanakataa kuwa Wapo Maswahaba wa Mtume (saww) ambao walitenda mabaya mengi kiasi kuwa matendo yao yaliwarudisha kwenye Ukafiri!

Waislamu hao, wamekuwa hawajui ukweli wa mambo waliyoyafanya hao maswahaba ambao wamefikia kutukuzwa sana kuwashinda hata Mtume Muhammad (saww) Mwenyewe na Watu wa Nyumba Yake Waliotakaswa na kutoharishwa ama kwa kutosoma vitabu au kufichwa na kupotoshwa na mashekhe wao!

Kufuatana na rejea hii ya kutoka kwenye Sahih Bukhari ambacho ndicho kinanadiwa kuwa ni Sahih kabisa baada ya Qur'aan Tukufu, Abu Huraira amesimulia hadith inayosema kuwa: Watakuja maswahaba wa Mtume (saww) kwenye Haudh ya Kawthar ili wapewe yale maji Matamu na ya Kuburudisha ya kule Peponi kupitia mikono ya Mtume (saww) Mwenyewe, Lakini Malaika watawafukuza hao maswahaba mahala hapo, kisha Mtume (saww) Atasema: Musiwafukuze hao walikuwa maswahaba wangu!
Itatokea Sauti ya Mwenyezi Mungu Akisema: Ewe Muhammad! Hujui hawa walifanya nini baada ya kufariki kwako, Walirudi kwenye Ukaffir!

Haya enyi munaowatetea Maswahaba kuwa wote walikuwa wabora na watukufu, Hiyo hadith huyo Abu Huraira alidanganya au alitunga hadith ya kuwadhalilisha hao maswahaba?

Sisi Mashia tunapowaambieni kuwa Abubakar, Umar, Uthman, Muawiyyah, Khaleed bin Walid na wengine wengi walifanya Maovu na Udhalim mkubwa munapinga na munafikia kutukufurisha na kusema sisi tunawatukana maswahaba.

Je huyo Abu Huraira Ametukana?

Kama ametukana, mbona basi hamusemi kuwa Abu Huraira Alikuwa Kaffir na hamuzichomi hivyo vitabu vyenu?


MUHAMMAD ALIKUWA HAJUI DINI

 Mtukufu Mtume (s.a.w.w.) alikuwa hajui dini na mwongozo sahihi (Na’uzubillah). [Aysar al-Tafasir cha Abu Bakr al-Jazaeri, juzuu ya 5 ukurasa wa 2070]




VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM SEHEMU YA NNE

 



Soma viroja na vituka vya Marehemu Muhammad.

Salaf walikuwa wakikanusha na kubadilisha aya za Quran (Na’uzubillah). [Majmua al-Fatawa Juzuu ya 12 ukurasa wa 492]

Mtume (saww) aliifanya Tahrif ya Kurani akiwa amekuja chini ya ushawishi wa Shetani (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Dur al Manthur, Juzuu ya 4 ukurasa wa 367]

Mtume (s) alibakia kuwa muabudu masanamu kwa muda wa miaka 40 (Na’uzubillah). [Fakhruddin al Razi, Juzuu ya 8 ukurasa wa 424]

Mtume (s.a.w.w.) alitaka kujiua baada ya kupata ule wahyi wa kwanza. [Sahih Bukhari Juzuu 9, Kitabu cha 87, Namba 111]

Mtukufu Mtume (s.a.w.w.) alikuwa hajui dini na mwongozo sahihi (Na’uzubillah). [Aysar al-Tafasir cha Abu Bakr al-Jazaeri, juzuu ya 5 ukurasa wa 2070]

Mtume (s) aliingia Msikitini kuongoza Swala katika hali ya uchafu (Na’uzubillah). [Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu cha Ghusl Juzuu ya 1, Kitabu cha 5, Namba 274]

Mtume (s) alikuwa akikojoa akiwa amesimama (Na’uzubillah). [Sahih Muslim, Kitabu cha utakaso 002, Nambari 0523]

Mtume (s) alitanguliza kutafuta mkufu badala ya Swala (Na’uzubillah). [Sahih Bukhari, Kitabu cha Tayamum Juzuu 1, Kitabu cha 7, Namba 330]

Madhabahu ya Mtukufu Mtume (s.a.w.w.) yanapaswa kupigwa buldod (Na’uzubillah). [Tuhfat al-Mujib cha Muqbel al-Wadei, ukurasa wa 406]

Mtukufu Mtume (s) alitafakari uzinzi (Na’uzubillah). [Sahih Ibn Habban, Juzuu ya 14 ukurasa wa 169]

Shalom

Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries

Sunday, January 16, 2022

VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM SEHEMU YA TATU

 


VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM
SEHEMU YA TATU


Ibn Abbas (ra) aliamini kwamba kulikuwa na makosa katika Surah Ra’ad kwa sababu ya mwandishi aliyekuwa na ugonjwa wa Malale alikuwa anasinzia wakati anaandika hiyo Surah (Na’uzubillah). [Fatah al Bari, Juzuu ya 8 ukurasa wa 373]

Wachamungu Tabayin na Swahaba waliamini kwamba kulikuwa na kosa katika Surah Aal e Imran aya ya 81 (Na’uzubillah). [Tafsiir Tabari, Juzuu ya 6 ukurasa wa 554]

Neno katika Surah Bani Israil aya ya 23 lilibadilishwa kwa sababu ya waandishi na utumiaji mbaya wa wino (Na’uzubillah). [Al-Itqan, Juzuu 1 ukurasa wa 542]

Umar na baadhi ya Masahaba walikariri neno lisilo sahihi katika Surah Juma aya ya 9 kwa maisha yao yote (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Dur e Manthur, Juzuu ya 6 ukurasa wa 219]

Sahabi Ibn Masud aliamini kwamba Tahreef ilifanyika katika Surah Zukhraf aya ya 45 (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Dur al Manthur, Juzuu ya 7 ukurasa wa 382]

Ibn Abbas (ra) na Saiyd bin Jubayr walibainisha kosa katika Surah Nur aya ya 27 (Na’uzubillah). [Tafsiir Tabari, Juzuu ya 18 ukurasa wa 146]

Ibn Abbas (ra) aliashiria kosa katika Surah Nur, aya ya 35 (Na’uzubillah). [Tafsiir Ibn Abi Hatim, Juzuu ya 8 ukurasa wa 2595]

Aisha alikataa usahihi wa Quran kwa kuashiria makosa manne ndani yake (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Thalabi, Juzuu ya 6 ukurasa wa 250]

Uthman alishuhudia kwamba baadhi ya maneno ya Quran yalinakiliwa kimakosa (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Ma'alam al Tanzeel, Juzuu ya 3 ukurasa wa 361]

Shalom

Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries

Saturday, January 15, 2022

VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM SEHEMU YA PILI

 


VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM
SEHEMU YA PILI

Mwenyezi Mungu hushiriki katika kukimbia (Na’uzubillah). [Alawi al-Saqaaf, ukurasa wa 232]

Inajuzu kuandika Quran kwa mkojo (Na’uzubillah). [Fatawi Qazi Khan ukurasa wa 780 "Sura ya al Khathur"]

Mwenyezi Mungu anapotaja baraka, Yeye (swt) hufanya hivyo kwa Kiajemi na anapozungumzia mateso Yeye (swt) hufanya hivyo kwa Kiarabu (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Ruh al-Bayan, Juzuu ya 10 ukurasa wa 480 - iliyochapishwa Constantinople]

Ibn Umar aliamini kwamba sehemu kubwa ya Quran imepotea (Na’uzubillah). [Tafsir Duure Manthur, Juzuu ya 1 ukurasa wa 104]
Tahreef imefanywa ndani ya Quran (Na’uzubillah). [Faiz al Bari Shrah Sahih Bukhari, Juzuu ya 3 ukurasa wa 395, Kitab al Shahadaat, kilichochapishwa India]

Quran iliteremshwa ili kuthibitisha maoni ya Umar (Na’uzubillah). [Tareekh Khulfa, ukurasa wa 110]

Mama wa waumini alitoa maoni kwamba Tahreeh imetokea katika Surah Baqra aya ya 238 (Na’uzubillah). [Kitabu cha Sahih Muslim 004, Nambari 1316]

Aisha aliamini kwamba baadhi ya aya za Quran zililiwa na mbuzi (Na’uzubillah). [Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitabu cha Kunyonya, Hadithi Na. 2020]

“ILAA AJALIN-MUSAMMA” imeondolewa kwenye Quran (Na’uzubillah). [Tafseer Durre Manthur, Juzuu ya 2 ukurasa wa 140-141]

Quran asili ina Parah 40/Juz (Na’uzubillah). [Fatah al Bari, Juzuu ya 9 ukurasa wa 95]

Shalom,

Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries

Friday, January 14, 2022

ETI, MVUA INAONDOA UCHAFU WA SHETANI KWA WAISLAM

 ETI, MVUA INAONDOA UCHAFU WA SHETANI KWA WAISLAM

SALAAAAAAALEEEHHHH

HUU NI MSIBA MKUBWA SANA

Waislamu, ni vipi mvua inatuondolea uchafu wa Shetani na ni uchafu gani hasa ambao mvua inatakiwa kuuondoa?
بكسني المتشهنديات الكصر بتعة
• Abdul Haleem:
Kumbukeni alipo kupeni usingizi kuwa ni yakini kutoka Kwake, na akateremsha maji kutoka mbinguni ili kukusafisheni, na kukuondoleeni uchafu wa shetani, na kuzifanya nyoyo zenu kuwa na nguvu, na imara miguu yenu. (11)
Al-Anfal, Ayah 11

POLENI SANA WAISLAM WA SAUDI ARABIA MAANA HUKO HAMNA MVUA BALI NI JANGWA TUPU NA NDIO MAANA MMEJAA UCHAFU WA SHETANI.

Muslims, how does rain remove Satan’s pollution from us and what exactly is the pollution that rain is supposed to remove?

إِذۡ یُغَشِّیكُمُ ٱلنُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةࣰ مِّنۡهُ وَیُنَزِّلُ عَلَیۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَاۤءِ مَاۤءࣰ لِّیُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِۦ وَیُذۡهِبَ عَنكُمۡ رِجۡزَ ٱلشَّیۡطَـٰنِ وَلِیَرۡبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمۡ وَیُثَبِّتَ بِهِ ٱلۡأَقۡدَامَ ﴿ ١١ ﴾
• Abdul Haleem:
Remember when He gave you sleep as a reassurance from Him, and sent down water from the sky to cleanse you, to remove Satan’s pollution from you, to make your hearts strong and your feet firm. (11)
Al-Anfal, Ayah 11

POLENI SANA WAISLAM WA SAUDI ARABIA MAANA HUKO HAMNA MVUA BALI NI JANGWA TUPU NA NDIO MAANA MMEJAA UCHAFU WA SHETANI.

Shalom,


Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries

VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM SEHEMU YA KWANZA


 

VITUKO KWENYE UISLAM

SEHEMU YA KWANZA

Mwenyezi Mungu anasema uwongo (Na’uzubillah). [Fatawa Rasheediyah cha Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, ukurasa wa 237]

Mwenyezi Mungu analaghai na anakejeli (Na’uzubillah). [Sefat Allah cha Alawiy al-Saqaaf, ukurasa wa 89]

Mwenyezi Mungu ndiye chanzo cha maovu yote (Na’uzubillah). [Musnad Abu Hanifa, ukurasa wa 152]

Mguu wa Mwenyezi Mungu utakuwa motoni (Na’uzubillah). [Sahih Bukhari Kiarabu-Kiingereza Juzuu ya 6 hadith nambari 371 iliyotafsiriwa na Dk Muhsin Khan]

Mwenyezi Mungu ameketi juu ya kiti cha enzi katika hali ya mguu wa msalaba (Na’uzubillah). [Ebtal al-Tawilat, cha Imam Abu Y'ala al-Fara, Juzuu 1 ukurasa wa 189]

Mwenyezi Mungu anaweza kuwa na wivu (Na’uzubillah). [Sefat Allah cha Alawiy al-Saqaaf, ukurasa wa 160]

Mwenyezi Mungu ni sawa kabisa na mwanadamu isipokuwa sifa mbili (Na’uzubillah). [Al-Qawasim min al-Awasim cha Abu bakr ibn al-Arabi, ukurasa wa 209]

Mwenyezi Mungu amewaumba Malaika kutokana na mkono wake na kifua chake (Na’uzubillah). [Al-Sunnah cha Abdullah Ibn Ahmad bin Hanbal, ukurasa wa 190]

Mwenyezi Mungu angeweza kusafiri juu ya mbu (Na’uzubillah). [Aqa'id al-Salaf cha Imam Darami, ukurasa wa 443]

Mwenyezi Mungu anataabika kwa kuongezeka uzito (Na’uzubillah). [Al-Sunnah cha Abdullah Ibn Ahmad bin Hanbal, ukurasa wa 161]

USIKOSE SEHEMU YA PILI

Shalom

Dr. Max Shimba for Max Shimba Ministries

Wednesday, January 12, 2022

BACA IS NOT MECCA OF THE QURAN

 BACA IS NOT MECCA


It is sometimes claimed that the Bible mentions Mecca. This is obviously worth a little investigation, as I hope to do in this short paper.

Where Does the Claim Come From?

In Surah 3:96, Mecca is given the name Bakkah:

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (the mankind and jinns).
The Bible, in Psalm 84:5,6, mentions the valley of Baca:

Blessed are those whose strength is in you, who have set their hearts on pilgrimage. As they pass through the Valley of Baca, they make it a place of springs: the autumn rains also cover it with pools. (NIV)
These two quotes, taken together, have been seen to imply that Psalm 84 is talking about making the pilgrimage to Mecca. One notable example is an article by Dr. M S M Saifullah. But the argument is made by many Muslim speakers including Dr. Jamal Badawi.

Is the Claim Justified?

There are several reasons why this claim cannot be sustained. Even without reference to scholarly works, a brief look at the passage itself makes the situation clear.

The whole psalm focuses on God's sanctuary and how the writer loves to spend time there. The author is one of ‘the Sons of Korah’ and internal evidence points to it being written after the building of the temple in Jerusalem by Solomon. Because of the psalm's focus on the sanctuary, there are several phrases which describe features of it, enabling us to evaluate the claim that it is Mecca:

v.1 - ‘How lovely is your dwelling place, O Lord Almighty!’
v.3 - ‘... a place near your altar, O Lord Almighty ...’
v.4 - ‘Blessed are they who dwell in your house’
v.7 - ‘They go from strength to strength, till each appears before God in Zion.’
v.10 - ‘I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God ...’
These five points count heavily against the claim outlined above. Firstly (I am open to correction on these points), I do not suppose that Muslims would accept the idea of Allah dwelling in the Ka'aba. I certainly am not aware of this way of thinking in Islam. On the other hand, the Bible repeatedly mentions the temple in Jerusalem as God's dwelling place, even though he is not limited to a building. In 1 Kings 8:27, Solomon, on the completion of his great temple, said this:

'But will God really dwell on earth? The heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built!' (NIV)
This makes it clear that the idea of God dwelling in the temple is figurative and not that he is limited to one building. However, it shows clearly that this way of thinking is found in the Bible.

Secondly, I am unaware of any altar which is given prominence at the Ka'aba, whereas the altar was an integral part of the tabernacle and then the Jerusalem temple, necessary for the sacrificial system instituted by God. (Exodus 27:1-8, 1 Kings 8:64).

Thirdly, the Ka'aba is empty and certainly no humans dwell in it. Yet Psalm 84 mentions those who dwell in God's house. This makes no sense unless it is the Jerusalem temple, which had rooms within its courts (1 Chronicles 28:11,12) for those who were responsible for its upkeep and ceremony.

Fourthly, the pilgrims in Psalm 84 are certainly not on their way to Mecca, as their destination is given as Zion. Mount Zion is one of the hills on which Jerusalem is founded. In the Bible Zion is often used synonymously with Jerusalem (Isaiah 2:2).

This point is made even stronger by examining the word used for ‘pilgrimage’ in Psalm 84:5. I don't claim to know much Hebrew or Arabic, so someone who does is welcome to correct me on this. However, I do know that both languages are Semitic and close in many ways, having the same or similar words for lots of things. That being the case, we might expect the Hebrew word translated here as ‘pilgrimage’ to be similar to the Arabic hajj. In fact, it is not. The only similar Hebrew word that I could find in my exhaustive concordance was hag, which is often translated as ‘festival’ and therefore seems to me to be in some way related to the Arabic hajj.

The Hebrew word used in Psalm 84:5 is from a completely different root to this and is usually translated as ‘road’ or ‘highway’. Thus it seems from a brief consideration that the phrase is literally like saying in English ‘those ... who have set their hearts on the highway’, meaning the way they must take to get to Jerusalem. So even the ideas of pilgrimage in the Bible and the Qur'an have a different emphasis. Just because the English translation of Psalm 84:5 says ‘pilgrimage’ we can't simply equate it with the Hajj.

Fifthly, there is no recognised function of doorkeeper for the Ka'aba, as far as I am aware. However, this was an official job at the Jerusalem Temple (2 Kings 25:18).

What Then is the Valley of Baca?

Baca has been translated either as ‘weeping’ or ‘balsam trees’ (which grow in dry places). It could be a real place, in which case it was a valley through which the pilgrims passed during their journey. Alternatively, it could be figurative. In this interpretation, even the dry, arid places through which the pilgrims pass are brought alive by their expectant joy as they near their destination. In either case, their pilgrimage is clearly to Jerusalem, as evidenced by the rest of the psalm. Why on earth would Jews, living in Israel and on their way to Jerusalem, take a huge detour through Mecca?

Whatever our conclusion as to the true identity of the valley of Baca, I think that I have made it fairly clear that the only link between it and the Bakkah of the Quran is a superficial similarity in name. The further details about the location point away from the two being identical. Since that is the case, why should we not link the Bakkah of surah 3:96 with any other place having a similar sounding name? Here is a quote from the article mentioned above:

...we often find this word in the names related to rivers and wadis, such as Wadi al-Baka in the Sinaitic district and Baca on the wadi in the central Galilee area, W of Meroth.
This shows that there are other places with similar names. Why then, do we not hear people claiming that the Quran is referring to these? It seems to me that it is because there is a prior commitment on the part of some to finding evidence for the Quran in the Bible. This, if found, would strengthen the claim that Islam is completely in line with all God's earlier revelations. However, in this case, it cannot be sustained.

I hope that this short paper has made it clear that the Baca of the Bible cannot be the Bakkah of the Qur'an. Rather than being a justifiable theory, it seems that some people, in their zeal to verify the Qur'an by using the Bible, have jumped all too quickly to a mistaken conclusion. A few superficial similarities are offset by several clear contradictions. It is often easy to bend the facts to fit our own theories, rather than forming our theories around the facts. This is never easier than in religion. Both Christians and Muslims are open to this temptation: I hope that fair-minded people will see this as a case in point. 

MUHAMMAD ALITABIRI KUWA, ATAKAPO KUFA, MASWAHABA WAKE WATAUKANA UISLAM NA KURUDIA UKRISTO

  MANENO YA MTUME (SAWW) YA KUWAAMBIA MASWAHABA. Bukhari katika Juzuu ya 8 Mlango wa Kauli ya Mtume (saww) katika kitabu chake ameandika: Mt...

TRENDING NOW